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libSQL database URLs

Throughout this documentation, the Turso CLI, and the libSQL client SDKs, you will notice examples of URLs that start with libsql://. These URLs are recognized by libSQL and Turso tools with the following meaning.

Database endpoint identification

A libsql URL identifies a libSQL logical database running libSQL server. A logical database URL connects to an instance of the database (primary or replica) with the lowest latency to the machine making the connection. You can get the URL for a logical database using turso db list and turso db show. Logical database URLs have the following format:


Turso depends on the hosting service to determine the lowest latency instance for a client connection. Typically, this will be the geographically closest instance to the machine running the client, though that may not always be the case. A client using a logical database URL might connect to different instances over time depending on how observes network latency.

Network protocol

When provided with a libsql URL, libSQL client libraries are free to choose what they consider to be the best (or only) available protocol that works in the runtime environment where they are running. libSQL server supports both WebSockets and HTTP. Some cloud and edge function providers might not support WebSockets, with HTTP being the only working choice.

It's possible that some SDK features might not be available depending on the chosen protocol. You should consult the SDK documentation for details. In the future, each SDK will expose a way to find out which protocol was chosen by the client object.

In order to optimize the latency of your application, or use libSQL server instances other than those managed by Turso, you might want to choose a protocol. The protocol is selected using the scheme of the URL. libSQL clients generally support the following schemes: http, https, ws, wss. If you want to specify the use HTTPS, you can replace the libsql scheme of the URL with https. For example, a logical database URL that specifies https has the following format:


Turso databases support only the secure https and wss schemes. ws and http are typically only used when developing against a libSQL server instance running locally that can't be configured with an SSL certificate.

The underlying data sent using WebSockets or HTTP is expressed as JSON. Documentation for this protocol and the structure of its messages is forthcoming.

Latency optimization

WebSockets tend to perform better when the client SDK can hold a socket open over time to handle multiple queries. However, HTTP tends to perform better for a single query since it requires fewer round trips between client and server. You should benchmark both options if there is any doubt which is better for your use case.